Due to the fact that the rocks are burnt bright color of pure tones, very promising is the use of them for facing facade materials. In the Kuzbass of burned rocks produced slabs, stones, I also dry plasters and for filling ofakturivaniya wall panels.
Facing materials, along with a beautiful colored light- resistant, sufficient mechanical strength, should have a high frost resistance, weather resistance and water resistance. When designing the foundations of the technological process of coating materials from fine-grained concrete on the basis of burned rocks presence of these properties was tested on laboratory specimens and plates life size. For experimental work, three major deposits of natural burned rocks were chosen. Ziminka near mine, mine red mountains and Povarnihinskoe Prokopyevsk
For the production of tiles and architectural details of burned rocks were taken with various smooth plates L-shaped 0.06 m, a constant thickness height 0.29 m, corresponding to four rows of brick with stitches, and a length of 0.25 to 1.77 m. The specification of these plates developed and applied in Novosibirsk in the manufacture of silicate masses (Fig. 73) at the suggestion of the architect NF Hranenko.
Facing plates stacked simultaneously with the laying of the wall so that the thickness of its plate and the packing includes a protrusion wall thickness, creating a wall material saving.When facing plates to be precise masonry under rasshivku providing beautiful texture of the facade (Fig. 74).
Fig. 73. Types of façade cladding panels of burned rocks ordinary; 2 is the angular; 3 -klinovidnye; 4 -karniznaya
Fig. 74. Masonry walls lined with slabs of burned rocks
manufacturing prospects facing facade of concrete products on the basis of burned rocks, variety of color, surface, shape and size, it is unlimited, and it is possible to produce shaped articles in the form of prefabricated architectural details. Fig. 75 shows facing facade panels with a surface which is shaped cut, and then various kinds of curtain units with round and shaped rollers and, finally, a fan-shaped window “lock”, placed usually in the form of bas architectural windows of buildings. Facing materials may be in the form of hollow stones and facade panels with a smooth or relief surface, and a cast and pressed flat small plates serving finishing layer for reinforced concrete wall panels, and large blocks (Fig. 76).
Fig. 75. Facing facade panels and architectural details of the concrete on the basis of burned rocks
Technology of facade panels. The technological scheme of manufacturing facade facing slabs of burned rocks is shown in Fig. 77. Raw materials in the form of lump lime, granulated blast furnace slag, and two varieties of burned rocks ordinary and bright through the receiving hopper by conveyor belt enters the storage silo of raw materials, from across the chute gates feeders on the conveyor chute and falls into the jaw crusher C-185. Crushed raw materials (except lime) bucket elevator is transmitted to the chute on the secondary crushing hammer mill P-29, and from it on trays and falls into the conveyor system 45 CM-Cellular drum dryer type. Bucket elevator takes the crushed dry material in the hopper and through the disc feeders PD-760 through a chute into a ball mill C-174.
The ground mixture of burned rocks and slag (binder) is sent to the double hopper, which is fed through the screw sand from burning rocks (active filler ). If necessary, a ball mill can be operated alternately on an ordinary grinding and burning bright rocks, which is then stored separately in two of the four silos, feed powder through the sectional feeders in two twin-shaft screw gel mixture.
Fig. 76. Hollow stone facade with a relief surface of the concrete on the basis of burned rocks
Fig. 77. Technological scheme of production of cladding facade panels of burned rocks-receiving hopper; 2 -lentochny conveyor; 3 -schekovaya crusher; 4 -kovshovy elevator; 5 -molotkovaya crusher; 6 -sushilny drum; 7 -shnek screw; 8 -bunkera; 9 -pitateli; 10 mill ball joint; -dvuhvalny screw mixer; 12 -rolgang; 13 -nastenny rotary valve; 14 is the transfer carriage; 15 -sborny container; 16 -kran-beam; 17 -gasilny drum; 18 -vibrosito; 19-Baku lime;20 -elektrovibroulovitel; 21 mortar; 22 -meshalki for milk of lime; 23-Baku for calcium chloride; 24 -vytyazhnoy node drying drum; 25 -proparochnaya camera
in them a special pipeline enters the calcium chloride solution and milk of lime mortar is prepared in a special unit consisting of a propeller stirrer and dosing tanks.
Concrete mixers weight is mixed with a filler medium sands of burned rocks, fed also by the sectional feeder from system of one of the hoppers, and then through a feed hopper with two gates for molding concrete supplied. Roller conveyors system boot, vibration and discharge is used to design plates, which are then board equipment with a wall jib crane with manual cat going into a collecting container. With the help of the jack and the transfer plate trolleys in the container fall into the steaming chamber, where steamed on the regime 4+ 10+ 4 hours.
Ready plate dismantling the container with an electric crane beams removed from the mold and processed sandblasted to remove limescale.
Provided for lime a separate process thread. Lime passes through the quenching unit consisting of gasilnogo drum converted from gravel washing CCCM-0-22, screens and sump tank system. Defend lime milk secondarily cleaned of impurities, passing through elektrovibroulovitel P-22, and through the suction line solution pump brand FAC-D-SO is transmitted to the mortar unit in the mixer.
Specific material consumption per 1 m2 facing ordinary slab is very small (Table. 77) .
when you go to autoclaving process of manufacturing facade facing slabs of burned rocks should be changed in the direction of simplification of all operations preceding zaparke, and reducing the amount of binder and additives.
The strength of the materials from burned rocks at autoclaved almost doubled and reached 400 105 n / m2. For coating materials such strength is unreasonably high, and therefore the offer to give up on the raw material grinding ball mills and runners. For the facing plates in this case, the process is complicated by the fact that finely ground burnt rocks act as a binder and pigment in the case of reducing the amount of this component in the mixture must be entered to obtain a sufficiently intense color powder mineral pigment. The pigment is sometimes inert and even harmful component, which reduces the hydraulic activity, so it can be administered only in the core layer.
for the top layer complete rejection of fine grinding in this case does not make sense.
The color and light fastness of tiles. Of the different-colored burned rocks, you can get a variety of color aluminosilicate materials from light pink and purple to brown and purple.On one field or waste heaps is sometimes found several varieties of burned rocks, differing in color and are usually grouped into layers or masses. Of the burned rocks with a distinct color expedient by fine grinding to produce pigment and binders at the same time for the upper facing layer (20 mm thick). For the rest of the plate is burned rocks without matching its color or series. If the plates are made of light colors, for which almost all are burnt rocks, the front layer is not needed. For facing the wall blocks applied textured layer thickness of 3-4 mm.
Coating burned rocks, as well as all of the fired clay materials, depends on the content of iron oxides, and the classification of burned rocks the color corresponding to the common assessment of conventional earthen colors.
Experience has shown that in the quarries and mine waste heaps Ziminka and quarries Prokopyevsk Povarnihinskogo field can selectively extract burned rocks three or four different colors.
dark burned rocks from the mine Ziminka containing 28.3 7 and iron oxide, can be equated with a natural mineral dye gives a dark purple color plates, and bright burnt rocks and Povarnihinskogo Krasnogorsk fields when the content of 5-6% iron oxide give lining bright pink and yellow tones.
observed over 12 years to check the colors for lightfastness aluminosilicate plates. Painting facing not pale and no changes other than light colors, which are contaminated with mainly coal dust over time. Flushing facing aul stream of acidified water restores its original color.Dark colors over time become more depth of tone and washing do not need.
If you compare the production of non-ferrous aluminosilicate material to produce a colored silicate materials, for the first color palette comes from the natural color of burned rocks, and the second color additives minium, soot, slag, ocher , tsemyanki, clay and so on. d. The researchers in conducting experiments in color silicate materials tsemyankoy and clays, t. e. the introduction of elements of aluminosilicate materials, found that they, along with the color capable of increasing strength.
Composed on the basis of the results of research work a process flow diagram of production of alumino silicate boards burned rocks lie down Kuzbass was the basis of technical and working projects Prokopyevsky factory facade panels 100 thousand. m2 per year, made the technology sector Kuzbaosgiproshahta (see. Fig. 77).
The cost of facade panels. In determining the unit cost of 1 m2 of tiles made of aluminosilicate sizes with fitting the actual price of the trust Novokuznetskprometroy standards were used. The resulting value of the planned 5 p. 92 in. Is rather high, which should be attributed to the low productivity of the plant 100 thousand. M2 per year. But when comparing the cost of 1 m2 plates of burned rocks with the cost of similar materials produced in Novosibirsk, it is much lower:
Technical and economic efficiency of façade panels of burned rocks becomes clear when considering, costing 1 m2 plates and comparing the unit costs with those for other types of plates (Table. 79, 80, 81).